Ultrasound Machine



Medical ultrasonography uses high frequency broadband sound waves in the megahertz range that are reflected by tissue to varying degrees to produce (up to 3D) images. This is commonly associated with imaging the fetus in pregnant women. Uses of ultrasound are much broader, however. Other important uses include imaging the abdominal organs, heart, breast, muscles, tendons, arteries and veins. While it may provide less anatomical detail than techniques such as CT or MRI, it has several advantages which make it ideal in numerous situations, in particular that it studies the function of moving structures in real-time, emits no ionizing radiation, and contains speckle that can be used in elastography. Ultrasound is also used as a popular research tool for capturing raw data, that can be made available through an ultrasound research interface, for the purpose of tissue characterization and implementation of new image processing techniques. The concepts of ultrasound differ from other medical imaging modalities in the fact that it is operated by the transmission and receipt of sound waves. The high frequency sound waves are sent into the tissue and depending on the composition of the different tissues; the signal will be attenuated and returned at separate intervals. A path of reflected sound waves in a multilayered structure can be defined by an input acoustic impedance (ultrasound sound wave) and the Reflection and transmission coefficients of the relative structures.[1] It is very safe to use and does not appear to cause any adverse effects. It is also relatively inexpensive and quick to perform. Ultrasound scanners can be taken to critically ill patients in intensive care units, avoiding the danger caused while moving the patient to the radiology department. The real time moving image obtained can be used to guide drainage and biopsy procedures. Doppler capabilities on modern scanners allow the blood flow in arteries and veins to be assessed.Unlike with an x-ray, there is no ionizing radiation exposure with this test.

Regulatory Standards

American College of Radiology (ACR) physics committee develops accreditation criteria and healthcare standards based on quantitative measurements using a QA phantom. These quantitative tests include but are not limited to:

Qualitative measurements

The following are various qualitative measurements to be performed on an annual preventive maintenance inspection:

  • Transducer testing
  • Depth of Penetration
  • Uniformity
  • Near field
  • Vertical distance
  • focal point
  • Horizontal distance
  • Lateral resolution
  • Vertical resolution
  • Low and High scatter
  • Volumetric data


  1. FDA. "Medical Imaging." 06/05/2014.


Ultrasound at the Point of Care Videos

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